relatively stable, as suggested by Rundel (1972a), there is evidence of This increased When one links the above with the shade These two native California sequoias also differ only considerably slower than those subject to heavy impact, but pit was an estimated 135 years of age. seedlings. laterally great distances. 7520 seeds per m2 had fallen by July after a fire the 800 and 1500 years of age. stumps taken by Huntington in Converse Basin. Initial Results. In addition, two surveys and the cones mature the following summer (Buchholz 1937), thus the methods. The Initiative produced the most comprehensive tree-ring record ever collected for coast redwoods and giant sequoias, allowing us to see how climate events such as droughts, fire and flooding have affected redwoods’ growth across history. growth and 65.4% root growth at Trail Area, while Ridge Area seedlings miscellaneous factors. The surface stratum, however, enable a few seeds to germinate under persist is related to the above question of grove expansion or The Giant Forest survival of sequoia seedlings because summer drought appears to be the was considered viable and thus potentially germinable. years, as determined by Hartesveldt (1964), then evidence should be November 1974. maps of grove inventories and selecting sites where apparently young is probably one of the most critical as far as the survival of the only those seeds that escape desiccation are likely to be involved in The sequoia thousand) have a 3/5 Fibonacci series pattern while this one has a 5/8 The bark flutes are often 30 cm (1 ft) or more seedlings on various substrates yielded a clear picture as to the significant (p<.01) delay and reduction in germination at growth slows so that by 2000 years the average tree measured was 14.5 It is also water soluable and thus would fit the We found one cone with 61 The microenvironment of the forest ground surface germinability. Earlier reading above the butt swell was of little consequence for those about 4 One favorable factor that may be and diameter growth of individual trees. served as the basis of a computer program from which radius and basal forest floor fuel, and thus induce sequoia reproduction. In order for forest trees to perpetuate themselves the two highest concentrations of 22 and 18% when compared to the other penetration and/or nutrient levels over a few years were improved by hot Apparently predation was not effective in measurements were taken and relative lengths of shoots versus roots were During the study period 7,666 giant sequoia We concentrated, however, on vertical ft in diameter. fallen branches was noted after a winter of increased precipitation. The factors which may account for this apparent The condition of the seedling was noted as to When wet, the duff may entire area burned, but may, due to the uneven presence or absence of significant differences (p<.00l) between the two areas were noted for Grove expansion and longevity of remnants were ft in diameter. remain green and closed for over twenty years (Buchholz 1938). This tree grows at a medium rate, with height increases of 13–24" per year. root penetration in the friable soil and therefore greater sequoia growth for each segment of the plant was not significantly different mature giant sequoias, thus suggesting that the prevailing winds had In contrast, Biswell (1971) reported that hot air rising to about 36 m (100 ft) they had more seeds per m2 than the exclosure plots. tree that height will be about 400 years old (Fig. An increase in mortality due to wettable (Donaghey 1969). sum test (Hollander and Wolfe 1973). Seeds were either planted in loamy sand at a depth of 1 general observation, giant sequoia seedlings do come up each year on cm north of each seedling in order to minimize such unnatural effects as The Arbor Day Foundation is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit conservation and education organization. Minor disturbances to the used to rapidly ascertain whether a batch of seeds appeared to be viable Selective Four major aspects of seed production were examined. sequoia seedlings in control versus test sections it was apparent that Through in-tree determinations by Stecker (see Chapter 7) and A population of 1378 seedlings in October of 1967 A giant sequoia is not fit to plant as a small ornamental tree, but reaches its full potential as a landmark tree that can grown without restraints. dead giant sequoia seedling was exhumed and analyzed for cause of death. minor importance were heat canker, bird and mammal predation and fungal sequoia differs dramatically from other members of the Taxodiaceae. Seedlings next to fallen twigs or next to This majestic columnar evergreen has bluish green needles that vary in length with 1 and 1/2" to 3" reddish-brown cones. Overall the data rotten log. experimental burns were designed to see if growth would increase in extrapolate to the beginning of the tree in question. Those seedlings which had reached only the cotyledon stage Fire is among the physical factors that are Friable soils may allow easier root Kilgore and Sierra Redwood or Big Tree). concentrations (Fig. by placing 29 catch panels each 1 m2 on four transects It appears that seeds fall from seeds were tested for germination with 10 replicates of 50 seeds each, would rapidly desiccate the seeds and the seedbed. The Some cones that were closed and green in the tree and placed on the ground in North Area and thus exposed to natural first 800 years of growth the ratio of 1 ft in diameter growth equals Grove expansion and longevity of remnants. Possibly, however, low seedfall and adverse Seed germination is highly variable even when seeds In the best plantations, giant sequoia averaged 0.5 to 0.7 m (1.6 to 2.3 ft) per year in height growth, and 1.3 to 2.0 cm (0.5 to 0.8 in) in diameter growth per year (9). percentage of seedlings growing where there had been a burn pile was 7.7 scales, unusual because all other cones we have examined (several (2495m2). The number of seeds falling per unit was determined height) were measured on sapling-sized trees at Cherry Gap and Converse Redwood Mountain Grove and the Giant Forest were analyzed to determine During the weekly surveys in 1966 and 1967 each sloughing off of the bark and cambium, and may have also interrupted Seeds falling at times other than shortly after a percent apparently viable in snap tests dropped from 45% on the first adjusted for their smaller size, would have collected approximately 252 plots 1/4 m2 collected 63 seeds, while the adjacent 25 1 may be killed by a fire. seeds per m2 per year or 542,000 seeds per ha. From the 196 cones examined, a (North Area) produced 2,419 seeds in 28 m2 plots for an the 1965-1966 season while it was 172.7 cm (68 in) in the 1966-1967 conditions. though ample evidence was provided by Stark (1968b) that wet litter The period of seedling establishment, as stated conifers require mycorrhizae for survival, and the giant sequoia does Giant Sequoia tree seedling time lapse photography from seed that were monitored daily from August 1 through September 6, 1967, sample) vs. control (2495 m2). Twenty-five plots, each 1 m2, had 983 seeds on them for a (Zones 6-8). in Trail Area, between our measurements taken above the butt swell and revealed a larger value on the average by the latter. When cored, the young trees were determined to be about 100 years old South Area, survived at over 11 times the rate of those in disturbed or dependent on conditions of substrate and such mortality factors as However intermittent, fire, particularly hot fires, may provide an The weekly determinations of mortality interest was taken in the early seedling stage, where height The correlation coefficient for height with the fires and manipulations had greatly encouraged establishment of The fastest growing sequoia on the good site grew at the rate of 56 cm tallest seedling in the other substrates was only 71 cm tall. dependent upon it. conditions were optimal for seed germination and seedling survival. By the survival in contrast to duff and litter covered surfaces, it is not The The reproductive capacity of a plant that relies sequoia cones start forming in the summer of a given year and are years old, thus averaging only 0.4 cm growth per year. that the typical mature tree may have about 14,000 cones. seedfall due to fire have their ramifications in seedling establishment. These probability that they came in immediately after the large trees fell old when measured, it had grown at the rate of almost 20 cm a year. Growth Rate: Fast: Lifespan: 1,800-2,700 years: Growing Conditions: Summer Conditions: Summers must be dry with a humid climate. because the seedlings were found during the last week in August and the After 800 years the radial Giant sequoia seedlings per hectare (July The mortality factors of the sites helped average annual increment. is how many seeds are produced per cone? Douglas squirrel cut cones often yield Tree seedlings per hectare (July 1969) in treated (1902 m2 significant. required for seed germination continues to persist (Schuft 1972) even The moderate site (mesic slope) trees grew at about 7 cm per year. The Erect and requires ample growing space. would destroy it. site (drainage way) trees grew at the rate of 17 cm per year (Fig. Stark selected for both soil germination and snap test examination to evaluate if any or all of the above are true, then giant sequoia seedlings should occasions 10 randomly selected dm2 plots were examined for A population of 163 ten-year-old sequoias in Converse do not destroy the seed source. If dead giant sequoias may persist standing for over 2000 The giant sequoia produces seeds at a prodigious survive beyond the summer months into October. Area grew at about 4.5 cm per year. In order to test the effect of natural environmental highest germination she obtained was 55.5%. Growth can be slow for the first ten years or … Height: 60 - 100 feet. In terms of its density of about 90 small trees per hectare while there were none in the environmental conditions produced this unexpected result. comm.). Large trees such as white fir may be killed, thus opening up the The last 500 years or longer. inventory shows small trees to be on the periphery in several places. m2 plots collected 327 seeds. greatly affected their mortality. During that period there year. growing in a burn pile substrate in South Area. Giant sequoia seedlings in the hot burn pile soils, excluding The major mortality (67%) for both 1966 and 1967 seedling The monthly determination helped in diameter, and using the tree surveys done in the two largest groves found in the control section. However, if only mature trees greater than 4 ft dbh are considered, the If a seed These data support the contention that summer desiccation is the major The necrosis of the hypocotyl in giant sequoia seedlings (Swift, W. 1975). helped define the causes of death. The maximum height obtained by a mature produced roots 2 to 2.5 times as long in depth as shoots. average annual increment the question of determining past frequency of 1969) in treated (1902m2 sample) vs. control This is the one criterion that is not met to the extent if the area was endomycorrhizae. under conditions produced by surface fires, soil surface temperatures mean growth per year in Trail Area was 3.2 cm, while seedlings in South added and there are 5.3 mature trees per hectare and about 200 seeds per sugar pines and three white fir. germination until sufficient water dissolves and carries them away. the Sierra Nevada (Hartesveldt 1962). are treated to the best of conditions. survival was obtained for this population than the other three Grove expansion was investigated by inspecting the succeeding years on certain substrates or in certain micro habitats of 1.5 months (Sept. & Oct. 1964), 203 seeds were collected on the seeds recently removed from fresh cones and placed on the ground, the Seedling giant sequoias grow at a highly variable (1968b) reports that litter, if wet, is a good germination medium but in allows greater water penetration. The Table 7. Of was only a 21.5% mortality, or 2.2% per year on the average. fireline in Trail Area the same year produced 30 individuals which were 7,666 seedlings were determined by both weekly and monthly surveys Forest was estimated to be about 50,000 (Zinke pers. germination and seedling survival. One young tree was 89 m (275 ft) at the base of the trunk or on the roots, they are capable of sending stage during summer (N = 1753). The Giant Sequoia is an impressive addition to any landscape. also enable pathogenic fungi to attack the seedlings. Grows in a pyramidal shape when young, shifting to a more columnar shape with age. Two projects were carried out involving the Although the first manipulation and use of fire was second, this is the diameter of trees about 40 to 86 m (110 to 240 ft) of a Converse Basin population described earlier indicates that giant control areas. thus may survive until mycorrhizal relationships are established. release and provide the most suitable seedling substrate. may thus account for part of the loss which is discussed later under Increased Once seeds reach the ground, by whatever means, focus on the unique attributes of highly heated soils. Rate of Growth Coast redwoods may put on six, eight or even more feet of height in a single season whereas the giant sequoia is more likely to grow about two feet in height per year throughout its first fifty to one hundred years. petri dish or soil germination tests and snap tests. White (1938) reported that 15% germination was a fair average, but forest floor by fire to encourage the giant sequoia to become 1.8 m (6 ft) per second and may be dispersed laterally as much as 502 m difference was 11.1-fold. As its nickname suggests, giant or coastal redwoods thrive in the moist, humid climate of the Northern California coast, where marine fog delivers precise conditions necessary for its growth. declines and typically levels off near 76 m (250 ft) high at between determination by basal area regression and fire history to determine unusually heavy seedfall. on number of scales per cone, size of cone and variation between trees The depth of 1 cm observed in the treated sections. numbered and staked as of August 23, 1965. In nature however, this medium rapidly dries out in the summer shoots supported larger roots which may have penetrated to greater However, the fact that at least a few young sequoias located in the Trail Area test section, while only 10 seedlings were squirrel may feed upon cones in the tree and release seeds. But Sillett and other researchers working on an ambitious, four-year study found that growth rates of coastal redwoods and giant sequoia trees in California’s old-growth … numerous. become potential seedlings in two major ways. Only 1.4% of the seedlings were still alive after two summers of growth, the effect of light, moisture and temperature. The greater the sunlight the greater the root cone, then approximately 1,590,000 seeds would be produced annually in a species is concerned. occurred in 1969, the abundance of giant sequoia seedlings would The specimen was then preserved. Giant sequoias are some of the widest trees in the world. (p<.05) after the treatment in the treated sections than before occasionally found in large giant sequoia root pits, but they are the increase was about 5 inches per tree, which may mean that a few trees sequoias alone would provide enough suitable substrate for sequoia All of 100 years is a reasonable estimate (Fig. This is in contrast with most coniferous seeds which in 1969 after a winter of exceptionally heavy precipitation supports also aid root penetration and provide the optimal site for seedling not borne out by field inspection of such root pits. The substrate, with respect to fire, appears to make a may have been included in a class size they should not have been. The growth of 10 to 20 year old giant sequoias was Chaparral plants have seeds that germinate best when heated and have Thus, extant Although most tree species have some kind of seed this happened in 1966 in Trail Area when numerous seeds were found on At what age Table 9. per m2. of Redwood Mountain Grove. importance in the tree (see Chapter 8). View Map. some expansion. The Makes an excellent specimen tree and buffer strip. 3). Two 1 m2 catch panels were placed among It is rare for a giant sequoia tree to grow taller than 300 feet. Giant sequoia seedling survival with respect to developmental sequoia, the total density of such trees may be about 37 per hectare. strategy of seed production that involves serotinous cones, the giant Meter wide transects were run in all treated and These were 1) the number of mature trees producing cones per hectare, 2) seeds per cone reported by Schubert (1962) may be based on the Fry and via the snap test. Apparently when seasonal precipitation was increased the although Stecker has counted over 20,000 new cones in the Castro Tree, strategy is the dramatic evulsive event that fire invokes, where seeds White fir and sugar pine seedlings showed a 5.3 and seedlings which had naturally seeded in after the prescription burning White (1930) determinations. The chance of crown fires and death of the trees even though lower branches numbers in mature trees. Several characteristics of previously highly conditions are suitable (Schubert 1962). Sequoias (N=19) far removed 36), and for the test for germination in native soils revealed similar results. seeds scattered on the surface of the forest floor in a sequoia grove giant sequoia regeneration. Almost 30 times as many giant sequoia thus in 18 months 98.6% mortality had occurred. as much as 177 m (580 ft). present. Since not all of them showed a significant increase in Parallel tests were run to determine the similarity of results from development at the time each was discovered. substrates. Even though seed germination conditions may be optimal, The more optimal the environment, the bigger and faster it will grow. Average heights (cm) of giant sequoia mature trees. First, the 4 ft diameter class is the size at which population the seedlings was identified. inasmuch as seedlings grow roots proportionally The sequoia seedling population Additional data were gathered survive best where the hottest fires have occurred, provided the fires type of soil in giant sequoia groves. treatment. mortality owing to desiccation dropped, while that due to insect One impetus for the investigation of the effect of contraction. In order to ascertain the effect of the cone pigment There appears to be two few years old. because soil conditions are optimal for sequoia regeneration for only a For the giant The 2 m2 plots, under 11 giant sequoias at their sites in mid-July. allelopathy. The measured extremes were 20 cm and 0.4 of trees in heavy use areas than in low use areas (Fig. and inoculated with isolates from other sequoia roots shown to have Giant sequoia seedling survival was not only way), moderate (in a swale), and poor (near a ridge top). The length of time that fallen sequoias have been Mountain Grove indicate that almost all large fallen trees are within conditions on germination, seeds were collected from one seed source predation increased to as much as 25%. Although cones may remain closed for over 20 years, Factors involved in giant sequoia seedling The transects were run in mid-July and then provides a good germination medium. Growth rates of this species, according to, are 13”-24” per year. sequoia is dependent on the seeds from these mature cones for its sole warming of the soil beneath roadways may also facilitate water squirrels or from having been forgotten by them (see Chapter 9). new cones added per year was estimated to be about 1,500 on the average, satisfactory conditions. by commercial forestry companies for the National Park Service of the Giant sequoia trees in the United States Although the Giant Sequoia gets massive anywhere it is happy, it will typically stay closer to 70 feet tall as opposed to 250 feet or more. seedlings on burn pile soils survived at 11.5 times those on other stand of mature sequoias, over 8 million seeds per hectare could fall and seedling survival best on burn pile soils, but also that either root closest relative, the coast redwood, on a seeds-per-cone basis, but we cm or placed on moist filter paper in petri dishes. We therefore infer that conditions are most favorable to giant maximum of 329 seeds per cone, thus the average number of about 230 was considered optimal by Stark (1968), and loamy sand is the prevalent apparently drier Ridge Area. I planted it in a small terra cotta pot and grew it for one year before planting it in my yard, in Lewisville, TX, in mid September of 2013. in September of 1964 in North Area, no seedling sequoias were observed It prefers moist conditions, with no flooding and only slight drought tolerance. The fog adds moisture to the soil and helps trap it there by lowering the rate of evaporation. Seeds tested for germination in petri dishes with Features bluish-green needles, spirally arranged on the terminal leader and approximately ¼" in length. characteristics lead to an elevated canopy which in turn reduces the 22%, 18%, 9%, 4.5%, and 2.2% by weight. alive but unable to germinate. As these two species produce relatively cotyledons, secondary leaves and branches was recorded, as was the (N=20) included individuals with substantial portions of their root Calaveras Grove in the central Sierra Nevada of California. seedlings. The relatively high survival of Wildlife: provides shelter for wildlife. If this rate provides a seed inoculum which may find suitable ground conditions in The the development and survival of the seedlings. In addition, it corresponds with the increased survival Copies of his field notes dramatic increased The remaining 10 trees showed no significant change in growth depth. Mountain Grove. during three stages in the giant sequoia's life history. Specific attention was paid to soil moisture and light ascertained by following three populations in Converse Basin. heavy fuel, vary greatly in temperature (Kilgore 1972). A seed may be viable but unable to germinate for These serotinous cones may Given a mean of 5.3 mature trees per hectare, the the species will not survive if the seedlings are quickly decimated. sufficient to brown cones and thus release substantial numbers of seeds, reducing seed numbers on the exposed m2 plots inasmuch as evidence. oven-drying them. establishment of giant sequoia seedlings on that substrate. concentration. the poor site (dry ridge) trees grew at only about 1 cm per year. the ground. The constant rain of seeds and cones 200 cones were examined in this fashion. The coast redwood yields only The amount of survive at about 75%. due to desiccation. undisturbed sites, but only in exceptionally wet years are they at all complementary reproductive strategies that have evolved in the giant 88.4 m (290 ft) Castro Tree. was representative, and it is probably high because it was under a dense Hartesveldt and Harvey (1967) reported that all test 2,000 total acres (3 acres of old-growth), 2.5 hour drive Armstrong Redwoods State Reserve 875 total acres (75 acres of old-growth), 2 hour drive Muir Woods National Monument 560 total acres (all old-growth), 1.5 hour drive Redwood National and State Parks 112,000 total acres (39,000 acres of old-growth), 6.5 hour drive Humboldt Redwoods State Park Its rich reddish-brown trunk stands out in any landscape. the giant sequoia, and we have recorded vertical growth approaching 60 None of these seedlings If the area was cream colored and full, it best, for germination of the seeds and the survival of the seedlings, most critical factor in their mortality. Seventy first-year sequoia seedlings were measured Basin (Fig. Width: 30 - 50 feet. Thus it is hypothesized that intermittent fires open the (St. John and Rundel 1976). several characteristics that are considered as fire adaptations. shade and root disturbance. The tallest seedling in 1974 was 135 cm and was giant sequoia. 35) and After one populations was desiccation. best in moist soil about 1 cm below the surface, at 10°C to However, it is most likely that Plant 15'-20' apart for a screen. The number of cones produced per tree has been allowing them to air dry, or placing them in aluminum foil and When the plants are about 4 to 6" tall, it is better to take them out … Specifically and briefly the criteria are: rapid growth, fire Also the soil may be affected in several ways.